مقایسه سواد سلامت و کیفیت زندگی در سه گروه از مادران با فرزند فلج مغزی، اوتیسم و ناتوانی ذهنی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار ،گروه روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی ، دانشکده علوم انسانی ، دانشگاه خاتم ، تهران ، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد مشاوره، گروه روان شناسی بالینی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی مرکزی، اراک، ایران.

3 کارشناس ارشد مشاوره، گروه روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی ، دانشکده علوم انسانی ، دانشگاه خاتم ، تهران ، ایران.

چکیده

 زمینه و هدف: معلولیت های فرزندان اثرات منفی جبران ناپذیر روان شناختی و اجتماعی ﺑﺮ مادران ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. مطالعه سطح سواد سلامت مادران به عنوان عاملی اثرگذار بر کیفیت زندگی آنها ضروری است. از این رو، این مطالعه با ﻫﺪﻑ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ مقایسه ﺳﻮﺍﺩ ﺳﻼمت ﻭ کیفیت ﺯﻧﺪﮔﻲ در سه گروه از  مادران با کودک  فلج مغزی، اوتیسم و ناتوانایی ذهنی انجام شده است.

مواد و روش‌ها: ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶ توصیفی و ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ علی-ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ. جامعه آماری شامل، کلیه مادران مراجعه کننده به کلینیک های توانبخشی، منطقه غرب شهر تهران در سال ۱۳۹۵ بودند. حجم نمونه شامل ۱۲۰ نفر(هر گروه 40 مادر) انتخاب شدند. روش نمونه گیری به شیوه تصادفی ساده انجام شد. ابزارهای اندازه گیری شامل، مقیاس سواد سلامت منتظری و همکاران(HELIA) و مقیاس کیفیت زندگی (WHOQOL) می-باشد. داده ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل آنوا و SPSS نسخه21 مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت.

یافته‌ها: یافته ها نشان می دهد که مادران دارای کودک با فلج مغزی، اوتیسم و ناتوانایی ذهنی در میزان نمرات سواد سلامت و مولفه های آن با یکدیگر تفاوت معناداری داشتند(0/05> p). مادران با کودک اوتیسم سطح سواد بالاتری در مقایسه با سایر گروه ها داشتند. با این حال ، در نمرات کیفیت زندگی جز در خرده مقیاس های سلامت روان شناختی و سلامت جسمانی تفاوت دیگری در سه گروه از مادران مشاهده نشد(0/05< p).

نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج نشان داد که، با توجه به نقش سواد سلامت در ارتقای سطح دریافت کمک های مراقبتی و اثر کیفیت زندگی پایین بر مادران ،به نظر می رسد که توجه به ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﻲ و آگاهی افزایی که برای بهبود ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻘﺎی ﺳﻮﺍﺩ ﺳﻼﻣﺘ ﻭ کیفیت زندگی در هر سه  گروه از مادران ، باید مورد توجه متخصصان بهداشت و سلامت قرار بگیرد.

نوع مطالعه: مطالعه پژوهشی.

کلیدواژه‌ها


1. Taulbee J. Understanding children of special needs: the guide for parents, teachers and care-givers. 2nd ed. Tehran: Jungle; 2009.

2. Khodabakhshi Koolaee A. Patterns of family therapy and parent education. 2nd ed. Tehran: Jungle; 2011.

3.Jalili, N. Gudarzi, M. Rasafiani, M. Haghgu, H.Dalvand, H. Farzi, M. The quality of life of mothers of children with severe cerebral palsy and the factors affecting it. New Rehabilitation Scientific Journal,2013;7(3).

4. Jaberi Moghadam, A. Mashalahi, A. Ghadiri, F. Soleimani, M. Quality of life related to the health of boys in active and passive cerebral palsy in Tehran. Magazine Growth and Learning-Sport, 2012; 11(2)

5.  Sanctis, R., Romeo, M. G., Mazzone, D. & Mercuri, E. (2010). Quality of life in parents of children with cerebral palsy: is it influenced by the child's behaviour?, Neuropediatrics, 41(3),121-126.

6. Keim-Malpass J, Letzkus LC, Kennedy C. Parent/caregiver health literacy among children with special health care needs: a systematic review of the literature. BMC Pediatr 2015;1:1–10.

7. Rezaie, K. Hosseini, M. Khademi, J. Ghafari, A. Addiction in work environments. Selected Proceedings of the 30th Provincial Congress on Early Prevention of Addiction,2010.

8. Romeo, D. M., Cioni, M., Distefano, A., Battaglia, L. R., Costanzo, L., Ricci, D., De Sanctis, R., Romeo, M. G., Mazzone, D. & Mercuri, E. Quality of life in parents of children with cerebral palsy: is it influenced by the child's behaviour?, Neuropediatrics, 2010; 41(3),121-126.

9. Demirel M. Primary School Curriculum for Educable Mentally Retarded Children: A Turkish Case. US-China Education Review.2010; 7(3):79-89.

10. Alaghband, M. The effect of coping therapy on the general health of mothers with genetically retarded children. Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences,Yazd,2011; 19(1):104:113.

11. Paschala AM., Mitchellb QP., Wilroy JD., Hawley SR., & Mitchelld JB. Parent health literacy and adherence-related outcomes in children with epilepsy. Epilepsy and Behavior,2016; 56;73-82. doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.12.036

12. Akbari A, Bayatiani Pour Mohammad, Rezaye Tajrishi M, Gangalivand N, Mirzamani M, Salehi M.[The Relationship between Social Network and Quality of Life in Parents of students with Intellectual Disabilities. 2011:163-174. [Persian]

13. Jon Baio. Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year, Principal Investigators. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years-autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States. Morb Mort Wkly Rep Surveil Summ. 2014;63(2):1.

14. Haglund N, Dahlgren S, Källén K, Gustafsson P, Rastam M. The Observation Scale for Autism(OSA): A New Screening Method to Detect Autism Spectrum Disorder before Age Three Years. Journal of Intellectual Disability - Diagnosis and Treatment. 2015;3(4):230-237.

15. Shur-Fen, G. S., Chou, M., Chiang, H., Lee, J., Wong, C., Chou, W. & Wu, Y. Parental adjustment, marital relationship, and family function in families of children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2012; 6(1), 263–270.

16. Payot, A., Keith, J. & Barrington, K. The Quality of Life of Young Children and Infants with Chronic Medical Problems: Review of the Literature. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care, 2011; 41: 91-101.

17. Cheshire, A., Barlow, J. H. & Powell, L. A. The psychosocial well-being of parents of children with cerebral palsy: a comparison study, Disabil Rehabil, 2010; 32(20):1673-7

18. Davis, E., Shelly, A., Waters, E., Boyd, R., Cook, K., Davern, M. & Reddihough, D. The impact of caring for a child with cerebral palsy: quality of life for mothers and fathers. Child Care Health Dev, 2010; 36(1): 63-73.

19. Mugno, D., Ruta, L., D'Arrigo, V. G. & Mazzone, L. Impairment of quality of life in parents of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 2007; 5(1), 22-41.

20. Ahmadizadeh, z., RASSAFIANI M, EHSANI F, HOSSEINI A. comparing the quality of life of mothers of children with cerebral palsy based on the ability to walk children. Research in Rehabilitation Sciences, 2014:10(1):88-98.

21. Abbasi M, Ayadi N, Pirani Z, Montazeri Z. The Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation on Social Well-Being, Quality of Life and Marital Satisfaction of Nurses. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot. 2017; 5 (3) :231-239

22. Khayatzade Mahani, M. Comparison of the quality of life of mothers of children with cerebral palsy, retardation of life and mothers of healthy children. Journal of Daneshvar Raftar,2010;3(1):1-12.

23. Meraji M, Rafat-Panah H, Mahmoodian S, Daeyan A. Assessment of university student health literacy toward Influenza. J Health Lit. 2016; 1 (3) :191-197

24. Fouladi N, Hazrati S, Shabani M, Nejaddadgar N. Investigating Middle-aged Health Literacy in Ardabil . J Health Lit. 2017; 2 (1) :39-44

25. Montazeri A, Tavousi M, Rakhshani F, Azin SA, JahangiriK, Ebadi M, et al. Health Literacy for Iranian Adults (HELIA): development and psychometric properties. Payesh Journal (2014); 13(5):589-599. (Persian)

26. Nejat S, Montazeri A, Holakouie Naieni K, Mohammad K, Majdzadeh S. The World Health Organization quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire: Translation and validation study of the Iranian version. sjsph. 2006; 4 (4) :1-12: URL: http://sjsph.tums.ac.ir/article-1-187-fa.html

27.Jenaabadi, H. The Effect of Social Skills Training on Reducing Behavioral Disorders in Vocational School Students Co-operative School in Zahedan. Exceptional Children Psychology Quarterly. 2012;1(2):73-84.

28. Samadibeyk, M. National study on the prevalence of autism in five-year-old children in Iran. Autism Journal. 2013;16(1):5-14.

29. Kharazi SS., Peyman N., & Esmaily H. Association between maternal health literacy level with pregnancy care and its outcomes. The Iranian Journal of obstetrics, Gynecology and infertility. 2017;19(37):40-50.

30. Saeedi Koupai M, Motaghi M. Comparing Health Literacy in High School Female Students and Their Mothers Regarding Women’s Health. Journal of Health Literacy.
2017;1(4):220-9.

31. Pati S, Siewert E, Wong A, Bhatt S, Calixte R, Cnaan A. The influence of maternal health literacy and child’s age on participation in social welfare programs. Matern child health J. 2014; 18(5): 1176–1189. 6.

32.Kheyr, N. G.-I. Quality of life of care givers of children with Autism in Qatar. Published on line before print,2012; 6(3):293-29.

33. Khodabakhshi-Koolaee A, Rajaee-Asl N. Efficacy of Hope-Oriented Group Therapy on Quality of Life and Parent-Child Relationship in Mothers with Autistic Children. J Prev Health. 2016; 2 (2) :32-43
URL: http://hpjournal.ir/article-1-70-fa.html

34. Lin J, Hu J, Yen C, Hsu Sh, Lin L, Loh C, Chen M, Wu Sh ,Chu C, Wu J. Quality of life in caregivers of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities: Use of WHOQOL-BREF survey. Research in Developmental Disabilities,2009; 30(6), 1448–1458.

35. Musavi, S. Quality of Life of Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy and Normal in Kermanshah. Monthly Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2014;18(9).

36. Ginieri-Coccossis, M., Rotsika, V., Skevington, S., Papaevangelou, S., Malliori, M.,
Tomaras, V. & Kokkevi, A. Quality of life in newly diagnosed children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) and differences from typically developing children: a study of child and parent reports. Child Care Health Dev, 2012;10(1111):1365-2214.

37. Lin J, Hu J, Yen C, Hsu Sh, Lin L, Loh C, Chen M, Wu Sh ,Chu C, Wu J. Quality of life in caregivers of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities: Use of WHOQOL-BREF survey. Research in Developmental Disabilities,2009; 30(6): 1448–1458.

38-Khodabakhshi Koolaee A, Arab Varamin A, Rooshan Cheseli R. Effectiveness of “Kozloff Parental Training Program” on Expressed Emotion and Burden Among Mothers With Autistic Child. IJRN. 2016; 3 (1) :29-34URL: http://ijrn.ir/article-1-260-fa.html