HIV Health Literacy (HALTRA) Model: A New Model Based on Information and Motivation to Eradicate Social Stigma

Document Type : Original Article


1 Doctoral Student, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

2 Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Aisyiyah Bandung, Indonesia.

3 Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.


Background and Objective: HIV-related health literacy is essential to influence people's beliefs about HIV/AIDS. It is also expected to reduce social stigma in the community. This study aimed to develop a model of HIV health literacy based on information and motivation toward social stigma in society. 

Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional designs are applied in these studies, conducted in five administrative areas of Bandung City, West Java Province, Indonesia, between March and April 2023. Sample recruitment used proportional cluster sampling in which one hundred and sixty-one community members participated in this study with criteria: aged more than 19 years old, not having HIV disease, and having the ability to read and use digital communication tools. Data analysis used a structural equation modeling approach. 

Results: HIV information, situational factors, and motivation influenced HIV health literacy. However, individual beliefs about HIV/AIDS moderated the impact of health literacy on social stigma. The HIV Health Literacy model also has a high goodness of fit index of 0.502. 

Conclusions: Information and motivation factors effectively shape HIV health literacy in society. Adequate HIV health literacy can help change an individual's beliefs about HIV to prevent stigma and discrimination, thereby increasing social inclusion. The HIV Health Literacy model can be an alternative reference point in developing community HIV awareness and health literacy strategies.


Acknowledgements: We express our profound appreciation to all the respondents involved in this study. We also thank the Directorate General of Higher Education, Research, and Technology, Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology of The Republic of Indonesia, and Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, for supporting this study.

Availability of data and materials: The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Conflicts of interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Consent for publication : Not applicable.

Ethical approval and consent to participate: This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia (number 2802-KEPK) and adhered to the specified guidelines in the Declaration of Helsinki. In addition, the researchers informed eligible patients about the purpose of the study and procedure and obtained their written consent. Respondents were assured that participating in the study was entirely voluntary, that their information would be kept secure and confidential, and that only the study team would have access to it.

Funding: This study was funded by the Directorate General of Higher Education, Research, and Technology, Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology of The Republic of Indonesia in Fiscal Year 2024.

Author contributions: AW and AY were responsible for the study design. AY and NDK were supervising the study. AW and DNIS were responsible for data, statistical analysis, and providing the data. AY and NDK reviewed the article. AW wrote the initial draft of the manuscript. All authors reviewed and agreed upon the final version of the manuscript.


Open Access PolicyThis is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. To view a copy of this licence, visit

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