Health Literacy and Its Association with Knowledge and Antibiotics Self-inflected Use among Women in Zahedan: A Cross-Sectional Study

Document Type : Original Article


1 Dpartment of Health Education and Health Promotion, Zahedan University Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

2 Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

3 Clinical Immunology Research Center, ELT Department, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

4 Khash Health High Education Complex, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran


Background and Objectives: Antibiotics self-medication is a global concern, and more common especially in low-income countries, and cause problems such as antibiotic resistance and drug toxicity. This study examined the levels of health literacy (HL) and their association with the knowledge of antibiotics and its self-inflected use among women in Zahedan.

Materials and Methods: The present study was an analytic –descriptive study conducted on 400 women living in Zahedan from October 1 to November 25, 2021. The data collection method was self-explanatory. Antibiotics self-medication and the Health Literacy for Iranian Adults (HELIA) questionnaires were used to collect data. Chi-square and two-variable logistic regression test were applied using SPSS software version 19, (p= 0.05).

Results: Education had a higher correlation with the correct antibiotics consumption compared to the only knowledge (OR=2.812), and the higher levels of health literacy were related to correct antibiotics consumption (OR=0.480). Education level also had a significant relationship with the knowledge level regarding correct antibiotics consumption (OR=6.845). Furthermore, the domains of understanding (OR=1.035) and evaluation (OR=1.022) had a significant relationship with having a good knowledge.

Conclusion: The findings showed that at all levels of health literacy, the optimal level of knowledge and correct antibiotics consumption were low, and the level of health literacy supports proper knowledge about the correct antibiotics consumption, so it is suggested that the level of health literacy and knowledge be improved to increase the rational use of antibiotics presenting understandable content in educational programs of the national media.


Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the colleagues for their valuable contributions to the data collection process. We also thank all the participants in our study.

Availability of data and materials: All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this article. Also, data are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Consent for publication: Not applicable.

Competing interests: No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author.

Ethics approval and consent to participate: The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by the ethics committee at Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (Ethics Code: IR.ZAUMS.REC.1400.239).All participants provided written informed consent.

Funding: No financial support was received for this study.

Authors' contributions: Hossein Izadirad: preparing and writing-original draft. Hossein Rashki Ghaleno, Hananeh Rafati and Elnaz Nadimi: planning the methodology, and analyses. Alireza Ateshpanjeh: reviewing and editing and visualizing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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