Dispelling Fake News and Infodemic Management about COVID-19 Vaccination: A Literature Review

Document Type : Review Article.


1 Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Mashhad Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran


Background and Objectives: Due to the uncertainty that arises during a disease outbreak, conflict, or natural disaster, crises are fertile grounds for sowing false information. In this context, an infodemic may arise from an excess of information in general, a lack of reliable information, or an increase in misinformation and disinformation. The purpose of this study was to look into the actions for dispelling fake news and managing infodemic about the COVID-19 vaccination.

Materials and methods: The literature search for this narrative review was conducted using English databases of Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct, as well as Persian databases including Magiran and Scientific Information Database. In addition, the World Health Organization, the reports of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) were also searched over. The search was carried out from December 2019 until May 31, 2022.

Result: Combating health misinformation would necessitate a collective effort from all sectors of society. There is sufficient knowledge that misinformation is a serious problem and its solution requires a joint and collective effort. Key actions to combat infodemic were categorized from micro to macro. These levels include individuals and families, educators and educational institutions, health professionals, researchers, social media professionals, media organizations, and the government.

Conclusion:  Because of the unique nature of COVID-19 and the flood of misinformation and fake news surrounding the pandemic, we believe that traditional actions limited to governments and healthcare institutions will not be adequate to successfully receive the common people's vaccination and reduce vaccine hesitancy.  The best approach to combating health disinformation is to acknowledge that different levels of society, from micro to macro, must realize that this is their moral and civic role, and that they must hold themselves accountable.


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