The Need of Family-Based Sexual Education: A Systematic Review

Document Type : Review Article.

Authors

1 Faculty of Educational and Psychology, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Background and Objective: Sexual education is one of the most important issues in the field and affects the formation of human personality and his/her thoughts, emotions and behaviors. This study was conducted to review existing studies with the aim of "determining the need of family-based sexual education ".
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted based on the PRISMA systematic review protocol. The data were obtained from international scientific electronic resources including the World Health Organization, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Persian databases as well as manual search using appropriate keywords. The criteria for entering this sample were articles published in English and Persian from the beginning of 1990 to June 2018.
Results: of the 294 articles reviewed, a total of 17 articles were included in the study. The results showed that the effective communication of parents with their children creates a proper attitude towards the gender issue as well as proper behaviors in this regard. These include improving adolescent reproductive health, raising awareness of puberty and menstruation, pregnancy and HIV / AIDS, emergency contraception and condom methods, delayed onset of sexual activity, less sexual communication and unwanted pregnancy prevention. The next point in reviewing these texts was the low level of communication between parents and boys in sexual matters.
Conclusion: According to the results, the necessity of family-centered education is evident and this method can prevent the commission of many sexually inappropriate behavior. The important challenge in this regard is the creation of effective communication skills in the family and the education and health organs should set this agenda as a priority. Another important issue is the empowering of parents to teach their children about sexual issues.

Keywords


1. Corona LL, Fox SA, Christodulu KV, Worlock JA. Providing education on sexuality and relationships to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and their parents. Sexuality and Disability. 2016;34(2):199-214.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11195-015-9424-6
 
2. Vandermassen G. Sexual selection: A tale of male bias and feminist denial. European Journal of Women's Studies. 2004;11(1):9-26.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1350506804039812  
 
3. Amini T, Pashaei. Existential necessity and how to pay attention to sexual education in high school curriculum from teachers 'and students' point of view. Curriculum research. 2012 1(1):169-202.  
 
4. UNFPA Operational Guidance For Comprehensive Sexuality Education 2014 [Available from: https://www.unfpa.org/.../UNFPA%20Operational%20Guidance%20for%20CSE%20-...  
 
5. Larkin J, Flicker S, Flynn S, Layne C, Schwartz A, Travers R, et al. The Ontario sexual health education update: perspectives from the Toronto teen survey (TTS) youth. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'éducation. 2017;40(2).  
 
6. Rogow D, Haberland N. Sexuality and relationships education: Toward a social studies approach. Sex Education. 2005;5(4):333-44.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14681810500278188  
 
7. Corona LL, Fox SA, Christodulu KV, Worlock JA. Providing education on sexuality and relationships to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and their parents. Sexuality and Disability. 2016;34(2):199-214.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11195-015-9424-6  
 
8. Sherlock L. Sociopolitical influences on sexuality education in Sweden and Ireland. Sex Education. 2012;12(4):383-96.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14681811.2012.686882  
 
9. Gavin LE, Catalano RF, Markham CM. Positive youth development as a strategy to promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2010;46(3):S1-S6.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.12.017
PMid:20172457  
 
10. Safarinejad M. Female sexual dysfunction in a population-based study in Iran: prevalence and associated risk factors. International journal of impotence research. 2006;18(4):382.
https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijir.3901440
PMid:16395324  
 
11. Kazemi A, Ardabili HE, Solokian S. The association between social competence in adolescents and mothers' parenting style: A cross sectional study on Iranian girls. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. 2010;27(6):395-403.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10560-010-0213-x  
 
12. Leslie LK, Mehus CJ, Hawkins JD, Boat T, McCabe MA, Barkin S, et al. Primary health care: potential home for family-focused preventive interventions. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2016;51(4):S106-S18.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2016.05.014
PMid:27498167 PMCid:PMC5406159  
 
13. Duley P, Botfield JR, Ritter T, Wicks J, Brassil A. The Strong Family Program: an innovative model to engage Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth and Elders with reproductive and sexual health community education. Health Promotion Journal of Australia. 2017;28(2):132-8.
https://doi.org/10.1071/HE16015
PMid:27545287  
 
14. Grossman JM, Tracy AJ, Charmaraman L, Ceder I, Erkut S. Protective effects of middle school comprehensive sex education with family involvement. The Journal of school health. 2014;84(11):739-47.
https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12199
PMid:25274174  
 
15. Nambambi NM, Mufune P. What is talked about when parents discuss sex with children: family based sex education in Windhoek, Namibia. African journal of reproductive health. 2011;15(4):120-9.  
 
16. Asekun-Olarinmoye E, Dairo M, Abodurin O, Asekun-Olarinmoye I. Practice and content of sex education among adolescents in a family setting in rural southwest Nigeria. International quarterly of community health education. 2012;32(1):57-71.
https://doi.org/10.2190/IQ.32.1.f
PMid:22547497  
 
17. Morales‐Campos DY, Markham C, Peskin MF, Fernandez ME. Sexual initiation, parent practices, and acculturation in Hispanic seventh graders. Journal of School Health. 2012;82(2):75-81.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00669.x
PMid:22239132  
 
18. Campero L, Walker D, Atienzo EE, Gutierrez JP. A quasi-experimental evaluation of parents as sexual health educators resulting in delayed sexual initiation and increased access to condoms. Journal of adolescence. 2011;34(2):215-23.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.05.010
PMid:20646754  
 
19. Trinh T, Steckler A, Ngo A, Ratliff E. Parent communication about sexual issues with adolescents in Vietnam: content, contexts, and barriers. Sex Educ. 2009;9(4):371-80.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14681810903264819  
 
20. Usher-Seriki KK, Smith Bynum M, Callands TA. Mother-daughter communication about sex and sexual intercourse among middle-to upper-class African American girls. Journal of Family Issues. 2008;29(7):901-17.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X07311951  
 
21. Aspy CB, Vesely SK, Oman RF, Rodine S, Marshall L, McLeroy K. Parental communication and youth sexual behaviour. Journal of adolescence. 2007;30(3):449-66.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.04.007
PMid:16750265  
 
22. Velez-Pastrana MC, Gonzádez-Rodríguez RA, Borges-Hernández A. Family functioning and early onset of sexual intercourse in Latino adolescents. Adolescence. 2005;40(160).  
 
23. Pluhar EI, Kuriloff P. What really matters in family communication about sexuality? A qualitative analysis of affect and style among African American mothers and adolescent daughters. Sex Educ. 2004;4(3):303-21.
https://doi.org/10.1080/1468181042000243376  
 
24. Hutchinson MK. The influence of sexual risk communication between parents and daughters on sexual risk behaviors. Family Relations. 2002;51(3):238-47.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2002.00238.x  
 
25. Walker JL. A qualitative study of parents' experiences of providing sex education for their children: The implications for health education. Health Education Journal. 2001;60(2):132-46.
https://doi.org/10.1177/001789690106000205  
 
26. Baumeister LM, Flores E, Marín BV. Sex information given to Latina adolescents by parents. Health Education Research. 1995;10(2):233-9.
https://doi.org/10.1093/her/10.2.233  
 
27. Rahmani A ea. The Role of the Family in Young Women's Sexually-Friendly Sexual Behaviors: A Qualitative Study. Iranian Journal of Nursing. 2017;30(108):11-22
https://doi.org/10.29252/ijn.30.108.11  
 
28. Ghorbani M, Zamani-Alavijeh F, Shahry P, Zare K, Marashi T. Understanding Childhood's Sexual Curiosity: An Introduction to Sexual Health Education and Health Promotion. Iranian Journal of Health Education and Health Promotion. 2015;3(3):198-210.  
 
29. Kalantari S ea. Puberty and sexuality education to girls: the experiences of mothers in Gorgan. Journal of Health Promotion Management. 2013;2(3):74-90  
 
30. Shariati M, Babazadeh R, Mousavi SA, Najmabadi KM. Iranian adolescent girls' barriers in accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services: a qualitative study. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2014;40(4):270-5.
https://doi.org/10.1136/jfprhc-2013-100856
PMid:25183530  
 
31. Turnbull T, Van Wersch A, Van Schaik P. A review of parental involvement in sex education: The role for effective communication in British families. Health Education Journal. 2008;67(3):182-95.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0017896908094636  
 
32. Veremenko V. Teens and sex: Sex education in aristocratic intellectual families of Russia in the second half of XIX-early XX centuries. Prz Wschodnioeur. 2017;8(2):23-33.  
 
33. Santa Maria D, Markham C, Bluethmann S, Mullen PD. Parent‐based adolescent sexual health interventions and effect on communication outcomes: a systematic review and meta‐analyses. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health. 2015;47(1):37-50.
https://doi.org/10.1363/47e2415
PMid:25639664 PMCid:PMC5136775  
 
34. Fonner VA, Armstrong KS, Kennedy CE, O'Reilly KR, Sweat MD. School based sex education and HIV prevention in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one. 2014;9(3):e89692.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089692
PMid:24594648 PMCid:PMC3942389  
 
35. Tolli MV. Effectiveness of peer education interventions for HIV prevention, adolescent pregnancy prevention and sexual health promotion for young people: a systematic review of European studies. Health Educ Res. 2012;27(5):904-13.
https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cys055
PMid:22641791  
 
36. Kim CR, Free C. Recent evaluations of the peer-led approach in adolescent sexual health education: a systematic review. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health. 2008;40(3):144-51.
https://doi.org/10.1363/4014408
PMid:18803796  
 
37. Mosavi SA, Babazadeh R, Najmabadi KM, Shariati M. Assessing Iranian adolescent girls' needs for sexual and reproductive health information. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2014;55(1):107-13.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.11.029
PMid:24560307  
 
38. Finkelhor D. The prevention of childhood sexual abuse. The future of children. 2009;19(2):169-94.
https://doi.org/10.1353/foc.0.0035
PMid:19719027  
 
39. Trocmé N, Bala N. False allegations of abuse and neglect when parents separate. Child abuse & neglect. 2005;29(12):1333-45.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2004.06.016
PMid:16293307  
 
40. Fitzgerald MM, Schneider RA, Salstrom S, Zinzow HM, Jackson J, Fossel RV. Child sexual abuse, early family risk, and childhood parentification: Pathways to current psychosocial adjustment. Journal of family psychology. 2008;22(2):320.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.22.2.320
PMid:18410219  
 
41. Boloorsaz-Mashhadi H. The Prevalence of Child Maltreatment and Non-accidental Trauma and Related Demographic Factors among Families of Karaj, Iran. Community Health (Salāmat-i ijtimāī). 2018;4(4):328-39.  
 
42. Cunningham R, Knox L, Fein J, Harrison S, Frisch K, Walton M, et al. Before and after the trauma bay: the prevention of violent injury among youth. Annals of emergency medicine. 2009;53(4):490-500.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.11.014
PMid:19162376  
 
43. Sharifi F, Sharifi N. The effect of educational intervention on lifestyle modification associated with osteoporosis in female students. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility. 2017;20(7):36-43.