The prevalence of low back pain and its relationship with BMI, age, level of education and ergonomic principles education among rural women

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD student of Health Education & promotion, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Health Education and Promotion, Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR.


Background and objective: Low back pain in addition to individual conditions reduced working capacity, a waste of time, absence from work, increased healthcare costs and economic losses. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of low back pain and its relationship with BMI, age, level of education and ergonomic principles education among rural women of Aq Qala city in 2016.
Methods: This present cross sectional descriptive study was conducted on 215 women from the village of the Aq Qala city. Data were collected by the Nordic questionnaires. The data was analyzed with software spss20, chi-square test and descriptive statistics.
Results: The prevalence of low back pain was 81/86% among rural women . χ2 analysis showed a significant relationship between low back pain with BMI(p=0/004), age(p=0/045) and education of ergonomic principles (p=0/003). There is no relationship between low back pain with level of education (p=0/08). Only 8/37% of participants were trained on ergonomic principles.
Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of low back pain, The need  felt for training these people in the field of weight loss, Implementation of ergonomic principles in Home working and Agriculture activities.
Paper Type: Research Article.


1. Haery SM, Tehrani H, Olyaeimanesh A, Nedjat S. Factors Influencing the Social Health of Employees of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran. Iranian Journal of Health Education and Health Promotion. 2016;3(4):311-8.
2. Anwantanakul P, Pensri P, Moolkay P, Jiamjarasrangsi W. Development of a risk score for low back pain in office workers - a cross-sectional study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2011; 12: 23.
3. Kamali Sarvestani F, Kavoosipur S, Chehrenegar, Abdollahi M, Sabzali SH. The prevalence of risk factors related to low back pain in 18-to-60-year-old women resident in Shiraz and surrounding villages, Iran. Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences, 2012;7(4):644-469.
4. Bombardier CH, Buchwald D. Chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia. Disability and health-care use. Med Care 1996; 34(9): 924-30.
5. Bergenudd H, Nilsson B. Back pain in middle age; occupational workload and psychologic factors: an epidemiologic survey. Spine , 1988; 13(1): 58-60.
6. Ahmadi H, Farshad AA, Motamed Zadeh M, Mahjob H. Epidemiology of Low- Back Pain and its Association with Occupational and Personal Factors among employees of Hamadan Province Industries. Journal of Health.2014;5(1):59-66.
7. Alghadir A , Anwer S. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia. The ScientificWorld Journal.2015:1-5.
8. Edlich RF, Woodard CR, Haines MJ. Disabling back injuries in nursing personnel. J Emerg Nurs 2001; 27(2):150-2.
9. Levy BS, Wegman DH. Occupational Health: recognizing and preventing work related disease and injury, selected groups of workers. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000. 770-1.
10. Sokhangooyi Y. Corrective Movement. Tehran: Department of Physical Education of Education Ministry press;2000.
11. Farahpoor N, Marvi Esfahani M. Effect of the exercise therapy on performance of the proprioceptive system in patients with chronic low back pain. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 2004; 14(42): 51-60.
12. Hoy D, Brooks P, Blyth F, Buchbinder R. The epidemiology of low back pain. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. 2010;24(6):769-81.
13. Li JY, Wang S, He LH, Wu SS, Yang L, Yu SF, et al. Risk Factors of Low Back Pain among the Chinese Occupational Population: A Case-control Study. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. 2012;25(4):421-9.
14. Choobineh A, Hosseini M, Lahmi M, Khani-Jazani R, Shahnavaz H. Musculoskeletal problems in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry: guidelines for workstation design. ApplErgon. 2007;38(5):617-24.
15. Mohseni-Bandpei MA, Fakhri M, Ahmad- Shirvani M,Khalilian AR, Shayesteh-Azar M, et al.Low back pain in 1,100 Iranian pregnant women: prevalence and risk factors. Spine J. 2009; 9(10):795-801.
16. Saeedi M. Low Back Pain and neck pain in related to poor posture in hospital female personnel of Fateme-zahra Hospital. Najaf-Abad Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences. 2011; 7(3):259-66.
17.Razavi S.M, Fallahi M,Hekmat Shoar R,Akaberi A. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal disorders and it's risk factors among, mothers' home working, Quarterly Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, 2013; 19( 4): 395-399.
18.Gupta G,Nandini N. Prevalence of low back pain in non working rural housewives of Kanpur, India. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2015;28(2):313-20.
19.Brauer RL. Safety and health for engineers. 2nd ed. Hoboken: Wiley-Interscience, 2006.
20.Shiri R, Solovieva S, Husgafvel-Pursiainen K, Taimela S, Saarikoski LA, Huupponen R, et al. The association between obesity and the prevalence of low back pain in young adults: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167(9): 1110-9.
21. Jacob T, Baras M, Zeev A, Epstein L. Physical activities and low back pain: a community-based study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36(1): 9-15.
22.Wijnhoven HA, de Vet HC, Picavet HS. Explaining sex differences in chronic musculoskeletal pain in a general population. Pain 2006; 124(1-2): 158-66.
23.Barrero LH, Hsu YH, Terwedow H, Perry MJ, Dennerlein JT, Brain JD, et al. Prevalence and physical determinants of low back pain in a rural Chinese population. Spine ,2006; 31(23): 2728-34.
24.Altinel L, Kose KC, Ergan V, Isik C, Aksoy Y, Ozdemir A, et al. The prevalence of low back pain and risk factors among adult population in Afyon region, Turkey. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2008; 42(5): 328-33.
25. Hartman E, Vrielink O, Huub HE, Huirne R, Metz JHM. Risk factors for sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders among self‐employed Dutch farmers: A case‐control study. American journal of industrial medicine. 2006;49(3):204-14.
26.Kuorinka B, Jonsson t A, Kilbom H, Vinterberg  F, Biering-Srensen G, Andersson  et al. Standardised Nordic questionnaires for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms. Applied Ergonomics 1987, 18(3):233-237.
27. Mokhtarinia H, Shafiee A, Pashmdarfard M. Translation and localization of the Extended Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and the evaluation of the face validity and test-retest reliability of its Persian version. Journal of Ergonomics, 2015;3(3):21-29.
28. Ramezani M, Taghizade G, Abdolvahab M, Lajavardi L, Saeidi Borujeni M. Investigating of risk factors related to chronic non-specific low back pain in military men. Journal of Modern Rehabilitation.2015;9(3):  54-61.
29. Kwon MA, Shim WS, Kim MH, Gwak MS, Hahm TS, Kim GS, et al. A correlation between low back pain and associated factors: a study involving 772 patients who had undergone general physical examination. J Korean Med Sci2006;21(6):1086-91.
30. Sadeghian F, Klalyan-Moghadam H, Javan-Mard M, Khosravi A, Nia SA. Epidemiology of low back pain and its relation to occupational and personal factors in university hospital nurses. Journal of Shahrood University of Medical Sciences. 2006;8(50):75-82.
31.The Burden of Musculoskeletal Conditions at the Start of the New Millenium: Report of a WHO Scientific Group: WHO. 2003: 109-140.
32. Thornton LJ, Stuart-Buttle C, Wyszynski TC, Wilson ER. Physical and psychosocial stress exposures in US dental schools: The need for expanded ergonomics training. Appl Ergon 2004; 35(2): 153-7.
33. Nadri H, Nadri A, Rohani B, Fasih Ramandi F, Sobhani M.A, Naseh I. Assessment of Musculoskeletal Disorders Prevalence and Body Discomfort among Dentists by Visual Analog Discomfort Scale. J Mash Dent Sch 2015; 39(4): 363-72 .
34. Izadi H. A survey on Prevalence of Musculoskeletal disorders and associated factors among men and women in Aq Qalaian rural in 2016. International Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain Prevention.  2016;1(2):55-59.